The gap between the most popular printing and equi

2022-08-06
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The gap between the printing and equipment industry and foreign countries - the overall impact of China's accession to the WTO on the printing and equipment industry I. major gaps since the reform and development, although China's printing and equipment industry has made great progress in terms of the wide plastic market prospect of China's household appliance industry, there is still a large gap between China's printing industry and the printing equipment industry compared with its foreign counterparts. The following describes the printing and equipment industries respectively

(I) gap in the printing industry

the overall gap in the printing industry is: excess general printing capacity, insufficient high-end fine printing capacity and poor benefits. The specific performance is as follows:

the per capita share of printed matter is too small: China's printing industry has always ranked among the top in the world, but China lags behind in terms of per capita. According to statistics, the annual per capita cost of printed matter in China is $3-4, while that in Japan is $470 and that in the United States is $316. China's per capita annual paper consumption is 5-7kg, while Japan and the United States are 240kg and 340kg respectively

the regional development is extremely uneven: the development of the East, the middle and the west is uneven. According to the relevant statistics in 1999, the 10 provinces and cities in the west account for 56% of the national area, 23% of the population, and 16.3% of the output value of the printing industry (books, magazines, packaging, newspapers and others). The development gap among the eastern, central and western regions is also large. For example, the output value of the printing industry in Guangdong Province accounts for 10.1% of the output value of the national printing industry, accounting for% of that in South China. Shaanxi Province accounts for 7.1% of the country and 75.3% of the northwest region. The output value of the printing industry in Tibet is less than 1.1% of that of the whole country, and that in Guangdong is 10.5 times that of Tibet

the general printing capacity is surplus, the high-grade fine printing capacity is insufficient, and the enterprise benefit is poor. Last year, the publication administration investigated 37o book and periodical printing enterprises, of which 90% could only produce in single shift, and many enterprises even lacked single shift tasks. In 1999, there were 1228 national, provincial and municipal designated book and periodical printing enterprises in China, with 454 losses, accounting for 37%, and only 40.5 billion yuan of profit after loss. Other book printing enterprises can be imagined. The newspaper printing industry, which is considered to be the most profitable, actually relies on advertising to make money, and printing newspapers does not make money. In fact, the advertising revenue is uneven. According to statistics, in 1998, 36 companies had advertising revenue of more than 100million yuan. Among them, 16 have exceeded 200million, 3 have exceeded 300million, and 36 have exceeded 600million, accounting for less than 2% of the total number of newspapers (about 2200 newspapers nationwide in 1998), while the total advertising revenue accounts for about 70%. The remaining 30% of the advertising income is kept alive by 98% of the newspapers. It can be seen that a considerable number of newspaper printing houses are having a hard time. Many enterprises in the packaging industry also have long-term losses or are on the edge of losses. According to a survey conducted in 1999 on 105 enterprises that are state-owned large and medium-sized and packaging and printing enterprises with better benefits after restructuring), the low profit units (with a per capita profit and tax of 1000-5000 yuan) account for 457%; 22 loss making enterprises, accounting for zi%; The two accounts for 667% in total. Not as good as the 1980s. The main reason for this is that the general printing capacity is surplus, the long-term task is insufficient, the high-end fine printing capacity is insufficient, the quality requirements are strict, and the task of high profit can not be printed

printing equipment is backward. Books and periodicals, packaging and printing enterprises still use a large number of inefficient sheet fed single and two-color machines, even backward OIS machines, and some places still use backward lead printing equipment. Many binding enterprises still have a large number of manual operations. The high-efficiency multi-color machine, although imported in large quantities, is only used in a few enterprises. Although newspaper printing enterprises have imported many efficient printing machines, most of the pre press plate making equipment still adopts the traditional plate making equipment. Jiangsu Jinfa technology has established long-term cooperative relations with many customers including the world's top 500 enterprises. Only a few advanced CTP equipment have introduced foreign products

backward process. At present, most printing enterprises still adopt the traditional process methods, and only a few enterprises have just started the advanced digital process

printing enterprises are seriously short of funds for technological transformation

backward management. Most enterprises have not yet established modern management systems, and the quality of personnel does not meet the new requirements. The demand is 100000 square meters, about 90% of which need to be imported

there are many small, large and comprehensive enterprises, the low-grade repeated construction is serious, and there are too few professional enterprises with strong competitiveness

(II) the gap between printing equipment and equipment

printing equipment (2) the development of printing products in China has been greatly improved. However, the development of printing equipment (2) has led to the following issues: first, the development of printing equipment (2) and the development of printing equipment (2)? Br

mainly reflected in:

1. the gap between prepress equipment: Drupa2000 international exhibition showed that the basic development direction of the printing industry is "digital and networking". With the development of Prepress digital and networking, the gap between our products and foreign products is even greater

@ digital equipment mainly includes CTP plate making equipment and related supporting equipment. Although the CTP equipment has been developed in China, it has not yet entered the actual use stage. Its performance still lags far behind the advanced level of foreign countries, and its quality remains to be tested by time. At present, more than half of the printing enterprises in the United States are using CTP plate making equipment, while China has less than 20 imported CTP machines. Its supporting digital cameras and digital proofing machines are all imported

@ the domestic products of traditional medium and low-grade prepress equipment can basically meet the demand, and the high-grade equipment base relies on imports to realize the "Chinese creation" of China's automobile industry. Such as high-grade scanners, high-precision automatic laser imagesetters, color printers, etc

2. the gap of printing equipment: mainly due to less functions, low automation and intelligent control level, and poor stability and reliability. The supply and demand of medium and low-grade products are balanced or oversupplied, and high-grade equipment mainly depends on imports

In 1999, China imported 675million US dollars of various printing equipment and spare parts, and exported 16.18 million US dollars. The ratio of import to export is 4171. The ratio of import value to domestic sales is about 1.871. That is, domestic equipment accounts for about 35% of the total domestic market

@@@@@@@@@in 1999, the imported offset printing machines amounted to $345 million. About 70% of the domestic market. Relevant data show that only Heidelberg company entered the Chinese market from 1999 to 2000, and the sales volume of offset printing machines is about equal to the total sales volume of domestic offset printing machines in 1999. Among offset printing machines, domestic offset printing machines for single and double color offset printing machines are dominant, while multi-color offset printing machines with high technical content are mainly imported. According to statistics, since the reform and opening up, imported multi-color sheet fed offset printing machines have accounted for about million children in the domestic market, and the market share of domestic sheet fed offset printing machines has decreased year by year. According to data, 420 sheet fed offset printing machines were imported from 1998 to 1999, 79 domestic machines, and the market share of imported machines was 84.17%. Among the web offset printing machines, the situation is more serious. There are about 30 commercial web offset printing machines in China, and only one is domestic machine. More than% of multi-color web offset printing machines with more than 60000 sheets/hour are imported machines

@ there are nearly 200 flexographic printing machines imported from China, accounting for more than 90% of the domestic market

@ there are more than 420 imported gravure printing machines above the middle level, and most of the market is occupied by foreign machines

@ the digital printing press with development direction has just begun to be studied in China, and currently all rely on imports

3. the gap of post press equipment: mainly due to incomplete varieties, low level of product automation and intelligent control, and high-end equipment mainly depends on imports

@ at present, domestic die-cutting machines, paper cutting machines, horse riding staplers, etc. can basically meet the demand, and only a small number of high-end equipment are imported. The main gap is that the automation and intelligent control level of domestic equipment needs to be further improved, and the appearance quality needs to be improved

@ high grade paperback linkage machine, high-grade hardcover linkage machine, high-grade box pasting machine, bag making machine, high-grade polishing machine, circular die cutting machine, high-grade slitting machine, carton production line, dry and wet compounding machine, ticket cattle production line and other equipment are also imported. The level of automation and intelligent control of domestic equipment is low, and the reliable performance needs to be improved

4. Main gap of printing equipment:

there are many kinds of printing equipment. The overall gap is that the varieties are incomplete and the product quality is very poor. High grade equipment mainly depends on imports

@ offset printing plates: CTP plates, which are all imported; The domestic silver salt CTP plate has not been successfully developed, and the international thermal CTP plate has become the mainstream. Although domestic CTP plates have been studied, the speed is too slow. The production capacity of ordinary PS version is greater than the demand. Some high-end PS versions still need to be imported. The Yin Tu PS version is basically imported

@ flexographic plates: medium and low-grade flexographic plates can be produced domestically, while high-grade flexographic plates still need to be imported. According to statistics, the domestic demand in 1999 was 100000 square meters, about 90% of which need to be imported

@ film: at present, the quality of laser image film mainly lags far behind that of foreign countries

@ ink: at present, UV ink, ink for color ink-jet printing, modern office supplies ink, thermosetting ink, etc. are far behind foreign countries, and some quality needs to be further improved, while some are still blank in China

@ rubber Market: ordinary rubber blanket can basically meet domestic demand. High grade air cushion rubber blanket mainly depends on imports. Domestic rubber blanket can not meet the needs of high-speed printing

@ paper: some high-grade printing paper and paperboard need to be imported. In 1999, more than 8 million tons of domestic printing paper and paperboard were imported, 6.5 million tons, accounting for about 45%

II. The overall impact of China's entry into WTO the impact of China's entry into WTO on the printing and equipment industry generally means that there are both opportunities and challenges, advantages and disadvantages, and the advantages outweigh the disadvantages

@ opportunities: joining the WTO is conducive to promoting China's reform and opening up, promoting economic development and structural adjustment, improving people's living standards, accelerating China's urbanization process, promoting the demand for information and cultural products, thus promoting the development of the printing industry and bringing unprecedented opportunities to the development of printing and printing equipment

@ challenge: after joining the WTO, it has become a general trend for foreign-funded related enterprises to enter China's printing industry market. The entry of foreign enterprises will have a strong impact on China's printing enterprises and printing equipment and equipment enterprises with their abundant funds, first-class equipment, scientific management and flexible business means. This is the first point. Secondly, the development of high and new technology and the promotion of digital networking will pose new challenges to the traditional printing and printing equipment enterprises. After joining the WTO, this challenge and impact will be more direct and cruel. The only way out is to transform traditional industries with high and new technology. Third, the withdrawal of state-owned and state-controlled enterprises from the general competitive field will inevitably lead to the adjustment of the system and product structure of the printing industry enterprises. A number of powerful large enterprises or enterprise groups will be formed. Different regions will not be lucky to bear the burden of more than 5 million yuan, which will help to promote this kind of large-scale adjustment and reorganization

(I) impact on printing enterprises

1. Opportunities:

@ due to economic development, global economic integration, the development and application of new technologies, and the increase of import and export, the printing market will continue to expand. Bring new opportunities for the great development of the printing industry

@ after joining the WTO, the tariff on imported raw and auxiliary materials will be reduced, and imported raw and auxiliary materials will be used

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